Classification of steel structure buildings

Classification of steel structure buildings


According to the structural stress characteristics, steel structure buildings can be roughly divided into portal frame structure, space truss (H é ng) structure, beam string structure, chord dome structure, grid structure and multi-storey structure.
1. Portal frame structure:
Portal frame is a traditional structural system. The upper main frame of this kind of structure includes rigid frame inclined beam, rigid frame column, support, purlin, tie rod, gable frame and so on.
The steel structure of portal frame light house has the characteristics of simple stress, clear force transmission path, fast component manufacturing, convenient industrialized processing and short construction cycle. Therefore, it is widely used in industrial, commercial, cultural and entertainment public facilities and other industrial and civil buildings. The steel structure of portal frame light house originated in the United States. After nearly a century of development, it has become a structural system with relatively perfect design, fabrication and construction standards.
2. Space truss structure
The space truss, that is, the spherical joint frame, belongs to a lightweight rigid structure, which forms a geometric style. The ball joint frame usually uses a multi-directional spacing, which is a structure composed of tension bars and pressure bars. The structure is in the stress state of three-dimensional space. No matter which type of truss can bear the load from all directions, the buildings with large collapse distance can play a better role against earthquake, and are often used in public buildings.
3. Beam string structure
In modern times, the beam string structure was clearly proposed by Professor M. saitoh of the University of Japan. It is a new hybrid roof system different from the traditional structure. Beam string structure is a hybrid structure system formed by the upper chord of rigid components, flexible cables and braces in the middle. Its structural composition is a new self balancing system, a long-span prestressed spatial structure system, and a relatively successful creation in the development of hybrid structure system. The beam string structure system is simple, the stress is clear, the structural forms are diverse, give full play to the advantages of rigid and flexible materials, and the manufacturing, transportation and construction are simple and convenient, so it has a good application prospect.
4. Chord dome structure
The string supported dome structure is similar to the beam string structure, which uses the tension of the cable to produce a supporting force to the beam in order to reduce the stress of the beam, but there are still significant differences between the two: the beam string cable is linear tension, and the string supported dome cable is circular tension;
The cable of chord dome is tensioned in a circular way, so this structural system is suitable for making similar circular roofs, such as Beijing Bicycle hall, Anhui University Gymnasium, etc;
5. Grid structure
Grid structure is a kind of spatial frame structure, and the stressed members are connected by nodes according to a certain law. The joints are generally designed to be hinged, the members mainly bear the action of axial force, and the section size of the members is relatively small. These spatial converging rods support each other, which organically combines the stressed rod with the support system, so the material consumption is economical. Due to the regular structure combination, a large number of rods and nodes have the same shape and size, which is convenient for factory production and site installation.
6. Multi storey and high-rise structure
(1) Frame structure
The frame is composed of columns and beams to bear vertical and lateral forces;
Rigid frame has poor lateral force resistance and large lateral deformation, which is generally suitable for structures below 20 floors;
The column generally adopts box steel column or concrete filled steel tubular column;
Concrete filled steel tubular column is filled with concrete in circular pipe column or box column. It not only has the advantages of steel structure, but also makes full use of the good compressive properties of concrete.
(2) Frame shear wall structure
Similar to the frame supporting structure, only the support is replaced by shear wall to resist lateral force;
Shear walls are generally concrete slabs or steel plates, or steel-concrete composite structures, which have better lateral stiffness and more flexible layout than supports, and can be suitable for higher building structures.
(3) Tube in tube structure
It is composed of ventral tube, frame tube and truss tube. Generally, the ventral tube is inside, the frame tube or truss tube is outside, and the inner and outer tubes jointly resist the action of horizontal force. The tube surrounded by shear wall is called solid web tube, and the perforated tube formed by regularly arranged window holes on the solid web tube wall is called frame tube; The four walls of the cylinder are composed of trusses formed by vertical and inclined rods, which is called truss cylinder.
(4) Beam tube structure
The bundle tube structure is the combined tube structure. When the building plane is large, in order to reduce the deformation of the external wall under the action of lateral force, the building plane is arranged according to the modular grid, so that the external frame cylinder and the internal vertical and horizontal shear walls (or closely arranged columns) become a composite cylinder group.
This greatly enhances the stiffness and lateral force resistance of the building. The beam tube structure can form any building shape, and can meet the needs of shape combination at different heights, enriching the appearance of the building. The Sears building on the 110th floor in Chicago, USA, uses beam tube structure.